Serving an API

Table of contents

Enough chit-chat about type-level combinators and representing an API as a type. Can we have a webservice already?

If you want to follow along with the code and run the examples while you read this guide:

cabal get servant-examples
cd servant-examples-<VERSION>
cabal sandbox init
cabal install --dependencies-only
cabal configure && cabal build

This will produce a tutorial executable in the dist/build/tutorial directory that just runs the example corresponding to the number specified as a command line argument:

$ dist/build/tutorial/tutorial
Usage:   tutorial N
        where N is the number of the example you want to run.

A first example

Equipped with some basic knowledge about the way we represent API, let’s now write our first webservice.

The source for this tutorial section is a literate haskell file, so first we need to have some language extensions and imports:

{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveGeneric #-}
{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}
{-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}
{-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #-}

module Server where

import Control.Monad.IO.Class
import Control.Monad.Reader
import Control.Monad.Trans.Either
import Data.Aeson
import Data.Aeson.Types
import Data.Attoparsec.ByteString
import Data.ByteString (ByteString)
import Data.Int
import Data.List
import Data.String.Conversions
import Data.Time.Calendar
import GHC.Generics
import Lucid
import Network.HTTP.Media ((//), (/:))
import Network.Wai
import Network.Wai.Handler.Warp
import Servant
import System.Directory
import Text.Blaze
import Text.Blaze.Html.Renderer.Utf8
import qualified Data.Aeson.Parser
import qualified Text.Blaze.Html
{-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-}

Important: the Servant module comes from the servant-server package, the one that lets us run webservers that implement a particular API type. It reexports all the types from the servant package that let you declare API types as well as everything you need to turn your request handlers into a fully-fledged webserver. This means that in your applications, you can just add servant-server as a dependency, import Servant and not worry about anything else.

We will write a server that will serve the following API.

type UserAPI1 = "users" :> Get '[JSON] [User]

Here’s what we would like to see when making a GET request to /users.

[ {"name": "Isaac Newton", "age": 372, "email": "isaac@newton.co.uk", "registration_date": "1683-03-01"}
, {"name": "Albert Einstein", "age": 136, "email": "ae@mc2.org", "registration_date": "1905-12-01"}
]

Now let’s define our User data type and write some instances for it.

data User = User
  { name :: String
  , age :: Int
  , email :: String
  , registration_date :: Day
  } deriving (Eq, Show, Generic)

instance ToJSON User

Nothing funny going on here. But we now can define our list of two users.

users1 :: [User]
users1 =
  [ User "Isaac Newton"    372 "isaac@newton.co.uk" (fromGregorian 1683  3 1)
  , User "Albert Einstein" 136 "ae@mc2.org"         (fromGregorian 1905 12 1)
  ]

Let’s also write our API type.

type UserAPI1 = "users" :> Get '[JSON] [User]

We can now take care of writing the actual webservice that will handle requests to such an API. This one will be very simple, being reduced to just a single endpoint. The type of the web application is determined by the API type, through a type family named Server. (Type families are just functions that take types as input and return types.) The Server type family will compute the right type that a bunch of request handlers should have just from the corresponding API type.

The first thing to know about the Server type family is that behind the scenes it will drive the routing, letting you focus only on the business logic. The second thing to know is that for each endpoint, your handlers will by default run in the EitherT ServantErr IO monad. This is overridable very easily, as explained near the end of this guide. Third thing, the type of the value returned in that monad must be the same as the second argument of the HTTP method combinator used for the corresponding endpoint. In our case, it means we must provide a handler of type EitherT ServantErr IO [User]. Well, we have a monad, let’s just return our list:

server1 :: Server UserAPI1
server1 = return users1

That’s it. Now we can turn server into an actual webserver using wai and warp:

userAPI :: Proxy UserAPI1
userAPI = Proxy

-- 'serve' comes from servant and hands you a WAI Application,
-- which you can think of as an "abstract" web application,
-- not yet a webserver.
app1 :: Application
app1 = serve userAPI server1

The userAPI bit is, alas, boilerplate (we need it to guide type inference). But that’s about as much boilerplate as you get.

And we’re done! Let’s run our webservice on the port 8081.

main :: IO ()
main = run 8081 app1

You can put this all into a file or just grab servant’s repo and look at the servant-examples directory. The code we have just explored is in tutorial/T1.hs, runnable with dist/build/tutorial/tutorial 1.

If you run it, you can go to http://localhost:8081/users in your browser or query it with curl and you see:

$ curl http://localhost:8081/users
[{"email":"isaac@newton.co.uk","registration_date":"1683-03-01","age":372,"name":"Isaac Newton"},{"email":"ae@mc2.org","registration_date":"1905-12-01","age":136,"name":"Albert Einstein"}]

More endpoints

What if we want more than one endpoint? Let’s add /albert and /isaac to view the corresponding users encoded in JSON.

type UserAPI2 = "users" :> Get '[JSON] [User]
           :<|> "albert" :> Get '[JSON] User
           :<|> "isaac" :> Get '[JSON] User

And let’s adapt our code a bit.

isaac :: User
isaac = User "Isaac Newton" 372 "isaac@newton.co.uk" (fromGregorian 1683 3 1)

albert :: User
albert = User "Albert Einstein" 136 "ae@mc2.org" (fromGregorian 1905 12 1)

users2 :: [User]
users2 = [isaac, albert]

Now, just like we separate the various endpoints in UserAPI with :<|>, we are going to separate the handlers with :<|> too! They must be provided in the same order as the one they appear in in the API type.

server2 :: Server UserAPI2
server2 = return users2
     :<|> return albert
     :<|> return isaac

And that’s it! You can run this example with dist/build/tutorial/tutorial 2 and check out the data available at /users, /albert and /isaac.

From combinators to handler arguments

Fine, we can write trivial webservices easily, but none of the two above use any “fancy” combinator from servant. Let’s address this and use QueryParam, Capture and ReqBody right away. You’ll see how each occurence of these combinators in an endpoint makes the corresponding handler receive an argument of the appropriate type automatically. You don’t have to worry about manually looking up URL captures or query string parameters, or decoding/encoding data from/to JSON. Never.

We are going to use the following data types and functions to implement a server for API.

type API = "position" :> Capture "x" Int :> Capture "y" Int :> Get '[JSON] Position
      :<|> "hello" :> QueryParam "name" String :> Get '[JSON] HelloMessage
      :<|> "marketing" :> ReqBody '[JSON] ClientInfo :> Post '[JSON] Email

data Position = Position
  { x :: Int
  , y :: Int
  } deriving Generic

instance ToJSON Position

newtype HelloMessage = HelloMessage { msg :: String }
  deriving Generic

instance ToJSON HelloMessage

data ClientInfo = ClientInfo
  { clientName :: String
  , clientEmail :: String
  , clientAge :: Int
  , clientInterestedIn :: [String]
  } deriving Generic

instance FromJSON ClientInfo
instance ToJSON ClientInfo

data Email = Email
  { from :: String
  , to :: String
  , subject :: String
  , body :: String
  } deriving Generic

instance ToJSON Email

emailForClient :: ClientInfo -> Email
emailForClient c = Email from' to' subject' body'

  where from'    = "great@company.com"
        to'      = clientEmail c
        subject' = "Hey " ++ clientName c ++ ", we miss you!"
        body'    = "Hi " ++ clientName c ++ ",\n\n"
                ++ "Since you've recently turned " ++ show (clientAge c)
                ++ ", have you checked out our latest "
                ++ intercalate ", " (clientInterestedIn c)
                ++ " products? Give us a visit!"

We can implement handlers for the three endpoints:

server3 :: Server API
server3 = position
     :<|> hello
     :<|> marketing

  where position :: Int -> Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO Position
        position x y = return (Position x y)

        hello :: Maybe String -> EitherT ServantErr IO HelloMessage
        hello mname = return . HelloMessage $ case mname of
          Nothing -> "Hello, anonymous coward"
          Just n  -> "Hello, " ++ n

        marketing :: ClientInfo -> EitherT ServantErr IO Email
        marketing clientinfo = return (emailForClient clientinfo)

Did you see that? The types for your handlers changed to be just what we needed! In particular:

And that’s it. You can see this example in action by running dist/build/tutorial/tutorial 3.

$ curl http://localhost:8081/position/1/2
{"x":1,"y":2}
$ curl http://localhost:8081/hello
{"msg":"Hello, anonymous coward"}
$ curl http://localhost:8081/hello?name=Alp
{"msg":"Hello, Alp"}
$ curl -X POST -d '{"name":"Alp Mestanogullari", "email" : "alp@foo.com", "age": 25, "interested_in": ["haskell", "mathematics"]}' -H 'Accept: application/json' -H 'Content-type: application/json' http://localhost:8081/marketing
{"subject":"Hey Alp Mestanogullari, we miss you!","body":"Hi Alp Mestanogullari,\n\nSince you've recently turned 25, have you checked out our latest haskell, mathematics products? Give us a visit!","to":"alp@foo.com","from":"great@company.com"}

For reference, here’s a list of some combinators from servant and for those that get turned into arguments to the handlers, the type of the argument.

  • Delete, Get, Patch, Post, Put: these do not become arguments. They provide the return type of handlers, which usually is EitherT ServantErr IO <something>.
  • Capture "something" a becomes an argument of type a.
  • QueryParam "something" a, MatrixParam "something" a, Header "something" a all become arguments of type Maybe a, because there might be no value at all specified by the client for these.
  • QueryFlag "something" and MatrixFlag "something" get turned into arguments of type Bool.
  • QueryParams "something" a and MatrixParams "something" a get turned into arguments of type [a].
  • ReqBody contentTypes a gets turned into an argument of type a.

The FromText/ToText classes

Wait… How does servant know how to decode the Ints from the URL? Or how to decode a ClientInfo value from the request body? This is what this and the following two sections address.

Captures and QueryParams are represented by some textual value in URLs. Headers are similarly represented by a pair of a header name and a corresponding (textual) value in the request’s “metadata”. This is why we decided to provide a pair of typeclasses, FromText and ToText which just let you say that you can respectively extract or encode values of some type from/to text. Here are the definitions:

class FromText a where
  fromText :: Text -> Maybe a

class ToText a where
  toText :: a -> Text

And as long as the type that a Capture/QueryParam/Header/etc will be decoded to provides a FromText instance, it will Just Work. servant provides a decent number of instances, but here are some examples of defining your own.

-- A typical enumeration
data Direction
  = Up
  | Down
  | Left
  | Right

instance FromText Direction where
  -- requires {-# LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-}
  fromText "up"    = Just Up
  fromText "down"  = Just Down
  fromText "left"  = Just Server.Left
  fromText "right" = Just Server.Right
  fromText       _ = Nothing

instance ToText Direction where
  toText Up           = "up"
  toText Down         = "down"
  toText Server.Left  = "left"
  toText Server.Right = "right"

newtype UserId = UserId Int64
  deriving (FromText, ToText)

or writing the instances by hand:

instance FromText UserId where
  fromText = fmap UserId fromText

instance ToText UserId where
  toText (UserId i) = toText i

There’s not much else to say about these classes. You will need instances for them when using Capture, QueryParam, QueryParams, MatrixParam, MatrixParams and Header with your types. You will need FromText instances for server-side request handlers and ToText instances only when using servant-client, as described in the section about deriving haskell functions to query an API.

Using content-types with your data types

The same principle was operating when decoding request bodies from JSON, and responses into JSON. (JSON is just the running example - you can do this with any content-type.)

This section introduces a couple of typeclasses provided by servant that make all of this work.

The truth behind JSON

What exactly is JSON? Like the 3 other content types provided out of the box by servant, it’s a really dumb data type.

data JSON
data PlainText
data FormUrlEncoded
data OctetStream

Obviously, this is not all there is to JSON, otherwise it would be quite pointless. Like most of the data types in servant, JSON is mostly there as a special symbol that’s associated with encoding (resp. decoding) to (resp. from) the JSON format. The way this association is performed can be decomposed into two steps.

The first step is to provide a proper MediaType representation for JSON, or for your own content types. If you look at the haddocks from this link, you can see that we just have to specify application/json using the appropriate functions. In our case, we can just use (//) :: ByteString -> ByteString -> MediaType. The precise way to specify the MediaType is to write an instance for the Accept class:

-- for reference:
class Accept ctype where
    contentType   :: Proxy ctype -> MediaType

instance Accept JSON where
    contentType _ = "application" // "json"

The second step is centered around the MimeRender and MimeUnrender classes. These classes just let you specify a way to respectively encode and decode values respectively into or from your content-type’s representation.

class Accept ctype => MimeRender ctype a where
    mimeRender  :: Proxy ctype -> a -> ByteString
    -- alternatively readable as:
    mimeRender  :: Proxy ctype -> (a -> ByteString)

Given a content-type and some user type, MimeRender provides a function that encodes values of type a to lazy ByteStrings.

In the case of JSON, this is easily dealt with! For any type a with a ToJSON instance, we can render values of that type to JSON using Data.Aeson.encode.

instance ToJSON a => MimeRender JSON a where
  mimeRender _ = encode

And now the MimeUnrender class, which lets us extract values from lazy ByteStrings, alternatively failing with an error string.

class Accept ctype => MimeUnrender ctype a where
    mimeUnrender :: Proxy ctype -> ByteString -> Either String a
    -- alternatively:
    mimeUnrender :: Proxy ctype -> (ByteString -> Either String a)

We don’t have much work to do there either, Data.Aeson.eitherDecode is precisely what we need. However, it only allows arrays and objects as toplevel JSON values and this has proven to get in our way more than help us so we wrote our own little function around aeson and attoparsec that allows any type of JSON value at the toplevel of a “JSON document”. Here’s the definition in case you are curious.

eitherDecodeLenient :: FromJSON a => ByteString -> Either String a
eitherDecodeLenient input = do
    v :: Value <- parseOnly (Data.Aeson.Parser.value <* endOfInput) (cs input)
    parseEither parseJSON v

This function is exactly what we need for our MimeUnrender instance.

instance FromJSON a => MimeUnrender JSON a where
    mimeUnrender _ = eitherDecodeLenient

And this is all the code that lets you use JSON for with ReqBody, Get, Post and friends. We can check our understanding by implementing support for an HTML content type, so that users of your webservice can access an HTML representation of the data they want, ready to be included in any HTML document, e.g. using jQuery’s load function, simply by adding Accept: text/html to their request headers.

Case-studies: servant-blaze and servant-lucid

These days, most of the haskellers who write their HTML UIs directly from Haskell use either blaze-html or lucid. The best option for servant is obviously to support both (and hopefully other templating solutions!).

data HTMLLucid

Once again, the data type is just there as a symbol for the encoding/decoding functions, except that this time we will only worry about encoding since blaze-html and lucid don’t provide a way to extract data from HTML.

Both packages also have the same Accept instance for their HTMLLucid type.

instance Accept HTMLLucid where
    contentType _ = "text" // "html" /: ("charset", "utf-8")

Note that this instance uses the (/:) operator from http-media which lets us specify additional information about a content-type, like the charset here.

The rendering instances for both packages both call similar functions that take types with an appropriate instance to an “abstract” HTML representation and then write that to a ByteString.

For lucid:

instance ToHtml a => MimeRender HTMLLucid a where
    mimeRender _ = renderBS . toHtml

-- let's also provide an instance for lucid's
-- 'Html' wrapper.
instance MimeRender HTMLLucid (Html a) where
    mimeRender _ = renderBS

For blaze-html:

-- For this tutorial to compile 'HTMLLucid' and 'HTMLBlaze' have to be
-- distinct. Usually you would stick to one html rendering library and then
-- you can go with one 'HTML' type.
data HTMLBlaze

instance Accept HTMLBlaze where
    contentType _ = "text" // "html" /: ("charset", "utf-8")

instance ToMarkup a => MimeRender HTMLBlaze a where
    mimeRender _ = renderHtml . Text.Blaze.Html.toHtml

-- while we're at it, just like for lucid we can
-- provide an instance for rendering blaze's 'Html' type
instance MimeRender HTMLBlaze Text.Blaze.Html.Html where
    mimeRender _ = renderHtml

Both servant-blaze and servant-lucid let you use HTMLLucid in any content type list as long as you provide an instance of the appropriate class (ToMarkup for blaze-html, ToHtml for lucid).

We can now write webservice that uses servant-lucid to show the HTMLLucid content type in action. First off, imports and pragmas as usual.

We will be serving the following API:

type PersonAPI = "persons" :> Get '[JSON, HTMLLucid] [Person]

where Person is defined as follows:

data Person = Person
  { firstName :: String
  , lastName  :: String
  } deriving Generic -- for the JSON instance

instance ToJSON Person

Now, let’s teach lucid how to render a Person as a row in a table, and then a list of Persons as a table with a row per person.

-- HTML serialization of a single person
instance ToHtml Person where
  toHtml person =
    tr_ $ do
      td_ (toHtml $ firstName person)
      td_ (toHtml $ lastName person)

  -- do not worry too much about this
  toHtmlRaw = toHtml

-- HTML serialization of a list of persons
instance ToHtml [Person] where
  toHtml persons = table_ $ do
    tr_ $ do
      th_ "first name"
      th_ "last name"

    -- this just calls toHtml on each person of the list
    -- and concatenates the resulting pieces of HTML together
    foldMap toHtml persons

  toHtmlRaw = toHtml

We create some Person values and serve them as a list:

persons :: [Person]
persons =
  [ Person "Isaac"  "Newton"
  , Person "Albert" "Einstein"
  ]

personAPI :: Proxy PersonAPI
personAPI = Proxy

server4 :: Server PersonAPI
server4 = return persons

app2 :: Application
app2 = serve personAPI server4

And we’re good to go. You can run this example with dist/build/tutorial/tutorial 4.

 $ curl http://localhost:8081/persons
 [{"lastName":"Newton","firstName":"Isaac"},{"lastName":"Einstein","firstName":"Albert"}]
 $ curl -H 'Accept: text/html' http://localhost:8081/persons
 <table><tr><td>first name</td><td>last name</td></tr><tr><td>Isaac</td><td>Newton</td></tr><tr><td>Albert</td><td>Einstein</td></tr></table>
 # or just point your browser to http://localhost:8081/persons

The EitherT ServantErr IO monad

At the heart of the handlers is the monad they run in, namely EitherT ServantErr IO. One might wonder: why this monad? The answer is that it is the simplest monad with the following properties:

Let’s recall some definitions.

-- from the Prelude
data Either e a = Left e | Right a

-- from the 'either' package at
-- http://hackage.haskell.org/package/either-4.3.3.2/docs/Control-Monad-Trans-Either.html
newtype EitherT e m a
  = EitherT { runEitherT :: m (Either e a) }

In short, this means that a handler of type EitherT ServantErr IO a is simply equivalent to a computation of type IO (Either ServantErr a), that is, an IO action that either returns an error or a result.

The aforementioned either package is worth taking a look at. Perhaps most importantly:

left :: Monad m => e -> EitherT e m a

Allows you to return an error from your handler (whereas return is enough to return a success).

Most of what you’ll be doing in your handlers is running some IO and, depending on the result, you might sometimes want to throw an error of some kind and abort early. The next two sections cover how to do just that.

Performing IO

Another important instance from the list above is MonadIO m => MonadIO (EitherT e m). MonadIO is a class from the transformers package defined as:

class Monad m => MonadIO m where
  liftIO :: IO a -> m a

Obviously, the IO monad provides a MonadIO instance. Hence for any type e, EitherT e IO has a MonadIO instance. So if you want to run any kind of IO computation in your handlers, just use liftIO:

type IOAPI1 = "myfile.txt" :> Get '[JSON] FileContent

newtype FileContent = FileContent
  { content :: String }
  deriving Generic

instance ToJSON FileContent

server5 :: Server IOAPI1
server5 = do
  filecontent <- liftIO (readFile "myfile.txt")
  return (FileContent filecontent)

Failing, through ServantErr

If you want to explicitly fail at providing the result promised by an endpoint using the appropriate HTTP status code (not found, unauthorized, etc) and some error message, all you have to do is use the left function mentioned above and provide it with the appropriate value of type ServantErr, which is defined as:

data ServantErr = ServantErr
    { errHTTPCode     :: Int
    , errReasonPhrase :: String
    , errBody         :: ByteString -- lazy bytestring
    , errHeaders      :: [Header]
    }

Many standard values are provided out of the box by the Servant.Server module. If you want to use these values but add a body or some headers, just use record update syntax:

failingHandler :: EitherT ServantErr IO ()
failingHandler = left myerr

  where myerr :: ServantErr
        myerr = err503 { errBody = "Sorry dear user." }

Here’s an example where we return a customised 404-Not-Found error message in the response body if “myfile.txt” isn’t there:

server6 :: Server IOAPI1
server6 = do
  exists <- liftIO (doesFileExist "myfile.txt")
  if exists
    then liftIO (readFile "myfile.txt") >>= return . FileContent
    else left custom404Err

  where custom404Err = err404 { errBody = "myfile.txt just isn't there, please leave this server alone." }

Let’s run this server (dist/build/tutorial/tutorial 5) and query it, first without the file and then with the file.

 $ curl --verbose http://localhost:8081/myfile.txt
 [snip]
 * Connected to localhost (127.0.0.1) port 8081 (#0)
 > GET /myfile.txt HTTP/1.1
 > User-Agent: curl/7.30.0
 > Host: localhost:8081
 > Accept: */*
 >
 < HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
 [snip]
 myfile.txt just isnt there, please leave this server alone.

 $ echo Hello > myfile.txt

 $ curl --verbose http://localhost:8081/myfile.txt
 [snip]
 * Connected to localhost (127.0.0.1) port 8081 (#0)
 > GET /myfile.txt HTTP/1.1
 > User-Agent: curl/7.30.0
 > Host: localhost:8081
 > Accept: */*
 >
 < HTTP/1.1 200 OK
 [snip]
 < Content-Type: application/json
 [snip]
 {"content":"Hello\n"}

Response headers

To add headers to your response, use addHeader. Note that this changes the type of your API, as we can see in the following example:

type MyHandler = Get '[JSON] (Headers '[Header "X-An-Int" Int] User)

myHandler :: Server MyHandler
myHandler = return $ addHeader 1797 albert

Serving static files

servant-server also provides a way to just serve the content of a directory under some path in your web API. As mentioned earlier in this document, the Raw combinator can be used in your APIs to mean “plug here any WAI application”. Well, servant-server provides a function to get a file and directory serving WAI application, namely:

-- exported by Servant and Servant.Server
serveDirectory :: FilePath -> Server Raw

serveDirectory’s argument must be a path to a valid directory. You can see an example below, runnable with dist/build/tutorial/tutorial 6 (you must run it from within the servant-examples/ directory!), which is a webserver that serves the various bits of code covered in this getting-started.

The API type will be the following.

type CodeAPI = "code" :> Raw

And the server:

codeAPI :: Proxy CodeAPI
codeAPI = Proxy
server7 :: Server CodeAPI
server7 = serveDirectory "tutorial"

app3 :: Application
app3 = serve codeAPI server7

This server will match any request whose path starts with /code and will look for a file at the path described by the rest of the request path, inside the tutorial/ directory of the path you run the program from.

In other words:

Here is our little server in action.

$ curl http://localhost:8081/code/T1.hs
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeFamilies #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveGeneric #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeOperators #-}
module T1 where

import Data.Aeson
import Data.Time.Calendar
import GHC.Generics
import Network.Wai
import Servant

data User = User
  { name :: String
  , age :: Int
  , email :: String
  , registration_date :: Day
  } deriving (Eq, Show, Generic)

-- orphan ToJSON instance for Day. necessary to derive one for User
instance ToJSON Day where
  -- display a day in YYYY-mm-dd format
  toJSON d = toJSON (showGregorian d)

instance ToJSON User

type UserAPI = "users" :> Get '[JSON] [User]

users :: [User]
users =
  [ User "Isaac Newton"    372 "isaac@newton.co.uk" (fromGregorian 1683  3 1)
  , User "Albert Einstein" 136 "ae@mc2.org"         (fromGregorian 1905 12 1)
  ]

userAPI :: Proxy UserAPI
userAPI = Proxy

server :: Server UserAPI
server = return users

app :: Application
app = serve userAPI server
$ curl http://localhost:8081/code/tutorial.hs
import Network.Wai
import Network.Wai.Handler.Warp
import System.Environment

import qualified T1
import qualified T2
import qualified T3
import qualified T4
import qualified T5
import qualified T6
import qualified T7
import qualified T9
import qualified T10

app :: String -> (Application -> IO ()) -> IO ()
app n f = case n of
  "1" -> f T1.app
  "2" -> f T2.app
  "3" -> f T3.app
  "4" -> f T4.app
  "5" -> f T5.app
  "6" -> f T6.app
  "7" -> f T7.app
  "8" -> f T3.app
  "9" -> T9.writeJSFiles >> f T9.app
  "10" -> f T10.app
  _   -> usage

main :: IO ()
main = do
  args <- getArgs
  case args of
    [n] -> app n (run 8081)
    _   -> usage

usage :: IO ()
usage = do
  putStrLn "Usage:\t tutorial N"
  putStrLn "\t\twhere N is the number of the example you want to run."

$ curl http://localhost:8081/foo
not found

Nested APIs

Let’s see how you can define APIs in a modular way, while avoiding repetition. Consider this simple example:

type UserAPI3 = -- view the user with given userid, in JSON
                Capture "userid" Int :> Get '[JSON] User

           :<|> -- delete the user with given userid. empty response
                Capture "userid" Int :> Delete '[] ()

We can instead factor out the userid:

type UserAPI4 = Capture "userid" Int :>
  (    Get '[JSON] User
  :<|> Delete '[] ()
  )

However, you have to be aware that this has an effect on the type of the corresponding Server:

Server UserAPI3 = (Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO User)
             :<|> (Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO ())

Server UserAPI4 = Int -> (    EitherT ServantErr IO User
                         :<|> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
                         )

In the first case, each handler receives the userid argument. In the latter, the whole Server takes the userid and has handlers that are just computations in EitherT, with no arguments. In other words:

server8 :: Server UserAPI3
server8 = getUser :<|> deleteUser

  where getUser :: Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO User
        getUser _userid = error "..."

        deleteUser :: Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
        deleteUser _userid = error "..."

-- notice how getUser and deleteUser
-- have a different type! no argument anymore,
-- the argument directly goes to the whole Server
server9 :: Server UserAPI4
server9 userid = getUser userid :<|> deleteUser userid

  where getUser :: Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO User
        getUser = error "..."

        deleteUser :: Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
        deleteUser = error "..."

Note that there’s nothing special about Capture that lets you “factor it out”: this can be done with any combinator. Here are a few examples of APIs with a combinator factored out for which we can write a perfectly valid Server.

-- we just factor out the "users" path fragment
type API1 = "users" :>
  (    Get '[JSON] [User] -- user listing
  :<|> Capture "userid" Int :> Get '[JSON] User -- view a particular user
  )

-- we factor out the Request Body
type API2 = ReqBody '[JSON] User :>
  (    Get '[JSON] User -- just display the same user back, don't register it
  :<|> Post '[JSON] ()  -- register the user. empty response
  )

-- we factor out a Header
type API3 = Header "Authorization" Token :>
  (    Get '[JSON] SecretData -- get some secret data, if authorized
  :<|> ReqBody '[JSON] SecretData :> Post '[] () -- add some secret data, if authorized
  )

newtype Token = Token ByteString
newtype SecretData = SecretData ByteString

This approach lets you define APIs modularly and assemble them all into one big API type only at the end.

type UsersAPI =
       Get '[JSON] [User] -- list users
  :<|> ReqBody '[JSON] User :> Post '[] () -- add a user
  :<|> Capture "userid" Int :>
         ( Get '[JSON] User -- view a user
      :<|> ReqBody '[JSON] User :> Put '[] () -- update a user
      :<|> Delete '[] () -- delete a user
         )

usersServer :: Server UsersAPI
usersServer = getUsers :<|> newUser :<|> userOperations

  where getUsers :: EitherT ServantErr IO [User]
        getUsers = error "..."

        newUser :: User -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
        newUser = error "..."

        userOperations userid =
          viewUser userid :<|> updateUser userid :<|> deleteUser userid

          where
            viewUser :: Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO User
            viewUser = error "..."

            updateUser :: Int -> User -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
            updateUser = error "..."

            deleteUser :: Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
            deleteUser = error "..."
type ProductsAPI =
       Get '[JSON] [Product] -- list products
  :<|> ReqBody '[JSON] Product :> Post '[] () -- add a product
  :<|> Capture "productid" Int :>
         ( Get '[JSON] Product -- view a product
      :<|> ReqBody '[JSON] Product :> Put '[] () -- update a product
      :<|> Delete '[] () -- delete a product
         )

data Product = Product { productId :: Int }

productsServer :: Server ProductsAPI
productsServer = getProducts :<|> newProduct :<|> productOperations

  where getProducts :: EitherT ServantErr IO [Product]
        getProducts = error "..."

        newProduct :: Product -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
        newProduct = error "..."

        productOperations productid =
          viewProduct productid :<|> updateProduct productid :<|> deleteProduct productid

          where
            viewProduct :: Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO Product
            viewProduct = error "..."

            updateProduct :: Int -> Product -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
            updateProduct = error "..."

            deleteProduct :: Int -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()
            deleteProduct = error "..."
type CombinedAPI = "users" :> UsersAPI
              :<|> "products" :> ProductsAPI

server10 :: Server CombinedAPI
server10 = usersServer :<|> productsServer

Finally, we can realize the user and product APIs are quite similar and abstract that away:

-- API for values of type 'a'
-- indexed by values of type 'i'
type APIFor a i =
       Get '[JSON] [a] -- list 'a's
  :<|> ReqBody '[JSON] a :> Post '[] () -- add an 'a'
  :<|> Capture "id" i :>
         ( Get '[JSON] a -- view an 'a' given its "identifier" of type 'i'
      :<|> ReqBody '[JSON] a :> Put '[] () -- update an 'a'
      :<|> Delete '[] () -- delete an 'a'
         )

-- Build the appropriate 'Server'
-- given the handlers of the right type.
serverFor :: EitherT ServantErr IO [a] -- handler for listing of 'a's
          -> (a -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()) -- handler for adding an 'a'
          -> (i -> EitherT ServantErr IO a) -- handler for viewing an 'a' given its identifier of type 'i'
          -> (i -> a -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()) -- updating an 'a' with given id
          -> (i -> EitherT ServantErr IO ()) -- deleting an 'a' given its id
          -> Server (APIFor a i)
serverFor = error "..."
-- implementation left as an exercise. contact us on IRC
-- or the mailing list if you get stuck!

Using another monad for your handlers

Remember how Server turns combinators for HTTP methods into EitherT ServantErr IO? Well, actually, there’s more to that. Server is actually a simple type synonym.

type Server api = ServerT api (EitherT ServantErr IO)

ServerT is the actual type family that computes the required types for the handlers that’s part of the HasServer class. It’s like Server except that it takes a third parameter which is the monad you want your handlers to run in, or more generally the return types of your handlers. This third parameter is used for specifying the return type of the handler for an endpoint, e.g when computing ServerT (Get '[JSON] Person) SomeMonad. The result would be SomeMonad Person.

The first and main question one might have then is: how do we write handlers that run in another monad? How can we “bring back” the value from a given monad into something servant can understand?

Natural transformations

If we have a function that gets us from an m a to an n a, for any a, what do we have?

newtype m :~> n = Nat { unNat :: forall a. m a -> n a}

-- For example
-- listToMaybeNat ::`[] :~> Maybe`
-- listToMaybeNat = Nat listToMaybe  -- from Data.Maybe

(Nat comes from “natural transformation”, in case you’re wondering.)

So if you want to write handlers using another monad/type than EitherT ServantErr IO, say the Reader String monad, the first thing you have to prepare is a function:

readerToEither :: Reader String :~> EitherT ServantErr IO

Let’s start with readerToEither'. We obviously have to run the Reader computation by supplying it with a String, like "hi". We get an a out from that and can then just return it into EitherT. We can then just wrap that function with the Nat constructor to make it have the fancier type.

readerToEither' :: forall a. Reader String a -> EitherT ServantErr IO a
readerToEither' r = return (runReader r "hi")

readerToEither :: Reader String :~> EitherT ServantErr IO
readerToEither = Nat readerToEither'

We can write some simple webservice with the handlers running in Reader String.

type ReaderAPI = "a" :> Get '[JSON] Int
            :<|> "b" :> Get '[JSON] String

readerAPI :: Proxy ReaderAPI
readerAPI = Proxy

readerServerT :: ServerT ReaderAPI (Reader String)
readerServerT = a :<|> b

  where a :: Reader String Int
        a = return 1797

        b :: Reader String String
        b = ask

We unfortunately can’t use readerServerT as an argument of serve, because serve wants a Server ReaderAPI, i.e., with handlers running in EitherT ServantErr IO. But there’s a simple solution to this.

Enter enter

That’s right. We have just written readerToEither, which is exactly what we would need to apply to the results of all handlers to make the handlers have the right type for serve. Being cumbersome to do by hand, we provide a function enter which takes a natural transformation between two parametrized types m and n and a ServerT someapi m, and returns a ServerT someapi n.

In our case, we can wrap up our little webservice by using enter readerToEither on our handlers.

readerServer :: Server ReaderAPI
readerServer = enter readerToEither readerServerT

app4 :: Application
app4 = serve readerAPI readerServer

And we can indeed see this webservice in action by running dist/build/tutorial/tutorial 7.

$ curl http://localhost:8081/a
1797
$ curl http://localhost:8081/b
"hi"

Conclusion

You’re now equipped to write any kind of webservice/web-application using servant. One thing not covered here is how to incorporate your own combinators and will be the topic of a page on the website. The rest of this document focuses on servant-client, servant-jquery and servant-docs.

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